Pedagogical Challenges in Online Learning: ‘Maxiagogy’ as a Transformative Panacea Owing to the COVID-19 Outbreak

Sembiring, Maximus Gorky (2021) Pedagogical Challenges in Online Learning: ‘Maxiagogy’ as a Transformative Panacea Owing to the COVID-19 Outbreak. In: International Conference on Open and Innovative Education, 5-7 Juli 2021.

Pedagogical Challenges in Online Learning.pdf

Download (3MB) | Preview


The COVID-19 pandemic has forced all sectors, including education sectors, to make impulsive adjustments. In the implementation, educational institutions at all levels have undergone rapid changes as they had to adopt online learning. This study investigates the underlying factors that raise questions and complaints from stakeholders due to the changes in delivery from the face-to-face mode to online learning. Design/methodology/approach – The critical factor identified as a cause of the social confusion is a pedagogical issue. The pedagogical crisis presumably occurred due to the sudden changes from face-to-face teaching to the online learning mode. To untangle these tangled threads, this study collected data from various sources in an effort to understand the importance of the pedagogical issue in online learning. This issue needs to be investigated from diverse perspectives, ranging from: (1) the contexts that drive the acceleration of the use of online learning; (2) the evolution of the online learning generation; (3) open education, online learning, and the conception of higher education; (4) the system of online,,learning; and (5) the evolution of pedagogy in online learning. Methodologically,,the approach is a descriptive-qualitative one through some literature review activities and a series of focus group discussions on the critical analysis. The data collected are entirely secondary data in the form of content analysis. The sources were: (a) journals; (b) reports; (c) search engines; (d) websites containing scientific articles; (e) research papers; and (f) unpublished academic papers. Findings – This study succeeded in proposing a breakthrough alternative pedagogy that needs to be criticized as a transformative pedagogy, i.e. ‘maxiagogy’ based on communalism. We were familiar with pedagogy, andragogy, and heutagogy (including peeralogy and cybergogy) and cognitive-behaviourism, constructivism, and connectivism. This study finally confirmed ‘maxiagogy’ as the (new) transformative pedagogy (communalism-based) with its drawbacks and strengths. This is in line with the spirit of online learning for the 21st century — that is, learning is exciting, enjoyable, accessible, easy to find, reliable, and flexible. Originality/value/implications – The rise of the new transformative pedagogy will not solve the real pedagogical crisis in online learning. However, this study shows that ‘communalism-based maxiagogy’ can be used as a transformative pedagogy with respect to the pressures of the 21st century and the demands of millennial learners, regardless of whether the Covid-19 crisis occurred or not. ‘Maxiagogy’ ultimately places learners at the centre of learning, with two fundamental beliefs — flexibility and trust — becoming self-directed and self-determined learners.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Additional Information (ID): 22/S0008.pdf
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pedagogy, online learning, COVID-19 pandemic, connectivism, transformative pedagogy, self-determined learning.
Subjects: 300 Social Science > 370-379 Education (Pendidikan) > 374.4 Distance Education (Pendidikan Jarak Jauh)
300 Social Science > 370-379 Education (Pendidikan) > 378.175 Distance Education (pendidikan jarak jauh)
Divisions: Arsip Digital > Dokumentasi
Depositing User: CR Cherrie Rachman
Date Deposited: 17 Jan 2022 07:46
Last Modified: 02 Oct 2023 02:23

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item